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- 丹东全图牛彩网心水资料 - jlcc1069.com

2018-06-22 13:28 来源:亚洲最佳平台zc9663.com

   - 丹东全图牛彩网心水资料 - jlcc1069.com

  二四六天天好彩资料[{"id":"1","onlinetime":"2016/07/0100:00:00$2016/08/0100:00:00"},{"id":"3","onlinetime":"2016/04/1200:00:00$2016/07/0100:00:00"},{"id":"4","onlinetime":"2016/04/1200:00:00$2016/07/0100:00:00"},{"id":"5","onlinetime":"2016/06/0100:00:00$2016/06/2600:00:00"},{"id":"6","onlinetime":"2016/04/1200:00:00$2016/07/0100:00:00"},{"id":"7","onlinetime":"2016/06/2600:00:00$2016/07/1800:00:00"},{"id":"8","onlinetime":"2016/07/1800:00:00$2016/08/0900:00:00"},{"id":"9","onlinetime":"2016/06/1700:00:00$2016/08/3100:00:00"},{"id":"12","onlinetime":"2016/07/0600:00:00$2016/08/0600:00:00"},{"id":"13","onlinetime":"2016/08/0900:00:00$2016/08/3023:59:59"},{"id":"14","onlinetime":"2016/07/2717:30:14$2016/08/2723:59:59"},{"id":"16","onlinetime":"2016/08/3100:00:00$2016/09/3023:59:59"},{"id":"17","onlinetime":"2016/09/1500:00:00$2016/09/3023:59:59"},{"id":"18","onlinetime":"2016/09/0500:00:00$2016/09/1623:59:59"},{"id":"19","onlinetime":"2016/09/1900:00:00$2016/09/2323:59:59"},{"id":"20","onlinetime":"2016/10/0100:00:00$2016/10/3023:59:59"},{"id":"21","onlinetime":"2017/06/2300:00:00$2099/12/3123:59:59"},{"id":"22","onlinetime":"2016/09/2600:00:00$2016/10/2623:59:59"},{"id":"23","onlinetime":"2016/10/1800:00:00$2016/10/3023:59:59"},{"id":"24","onlinetime":"2016/11/0100:00:00$2016/12/0123:59:59"},{"id":"25","onlinetime":"2016/11/0100:00:00$2016/12/0123:59:59"},{"id":"26","onlinetime":"2016/11/0100:00:00$2016/11/1123:59:59"},{"id":"27","onlinetime":"2016/10/1800:00:00$2016/10/3023:59:59"},{"id":"28","onlinetime":"2016/12/1300:00:00$2017/02/2023:59:59"},{"id":"29","onlinetime":"2016/12/2817:28:32$2017/01/2823:59:59"},{"id":"30","onlinetime":"2016/12/0100:00:00$2016/12/1223:59:59"},{"id":"31","onlinetime":"2016/12/0200:00:00$2016/12/1223:59:59"},{"id":"32","onlinetime":"2016/12/1317:33:15$2017/01/1323:59:59"},{"id":"33","onlinetime":"2016/12/2211:19:01$2017/12/2211:19:03"},{"id":"34","onlinetime":"2016/12/2211:19:01$2017/12/2211:19:03"},{"id":"35","onlinetime":"2017/02/1614:19:45$2017/03/1523:59:59"},{"id":"36","onlinetime":"2017/03/1700:00:00$2017/03/3123:59:59"},{"id":"37","onlinetime":"2017/03/1700:00:00$2017/03/3123:59:59"},{"id":"38","onlinetime":"2017/03/0100:00:00$2017/04/0123:59:59"},{"id":"39","onlinetime":"2017/03/0100:00:00$2017/04/0122:59:59"},{"id":"40","onlinetime":"2017/04/0100:00:00$2017/04/2123:59:59"},{"id":"41","onlinetime":"2017/04/1200:00:00$2017/05/1223:59:59"},{"id":"42","onlinetime":"2017/04/2200:00:00$2017/05/1523:59:59"},{"id":"43","onlinetime":"2017/04/2200:00:00$2017/05/1523:59:59"},{"id":"44","onlinetime":"2017/05/2200:00:00$2017/06/2223:59:59"},{"id":"45","onlinetime":"2017/05/2200:00:00$2017/05/2923:59:59"},{"id":"46","onlinetime":"2017/06/0100:00:00$2017/07/0123:59:59"},{"id":"47","onlinetime":"2017/07/2000:00:00$2017/08/1923:59:59"},{"id":"48","onlinetime":"2017/09/0115:00:00$2017/09/3015:00:00"},{"id":"49","onlinetime":"2017/10/0100:00:00$2017/10/1923:59:59"},{"id":"50","onlinetime":"2017/10/0100:00:00$2017/10/1923:59:59"},{"id":"51","onlinetime":"2017/08/1800:00:00$2017/08/3123:59:59"},{"id":"52","onlinetime":"2017/08/1800:00:00$2017/09/1823:59:59"},{"id":"53","onlinetime":"2017/08/1800:00:00$2017/09/1723:59:59"},{"id":"54","onlinetime":"2017/09/0100:00:00$2017/09/2923:59:59"},{"id":"55","onlinetime":"2017/11/1200:00:00$2017/12/1223:59:59"},{"id":"56","onlinetime":"2017/10/2000:00:00$2017/11/1123:59:59"},{"id":"57","onlinetime":"2017/11/0200:00:00$2017/11/1200:00:00"},{"id":"58","onlinetime":"2018/03/1600:00:00$2018/04/0823:59:59"},{"id":"59","onlinetime":"2018/03/1600:00:00$2018/04/0823:59:59"},{"id":"60","onlinetime":"2017/11/2700:00:00$2017/12/2723:59:59"},{"id":"61","onlinetime":"2017/11/2700:00:00$2017/12/2723:59:59"},{"id":"62","onlinetime":"2018/01/0415:00:00$2018/01/1723:59:59"},{"id":"63","onlinetime":"2018/01/1800:00:00$2018/02/1823:59:59"},{"id":"64","onlinetime":"2017/12/2116:01:03$2018/01/2123:59:59"},{"id":"65","onlinetime":"2018/01/1815:31:34$2018/02/1823:59:59"},{"id":"66","onlinetime":"2018/03/0500:00:00$2018/03/1500:00:00"},{"id":"67","onlinetime":"2018/03/1600:00:00$2018/04/0800:00:00"},{"id":"68","onlinetime":"2018/03/0900:00:00$2018/04/0923:59:59"},{"id":"69","onlinetime":"2018/04/0900:00:00$2018/05/0823:59:59"},{"id":"70","onlinetime":"2018/04/0810:16:57$2018/05/0400:00:00"},{"id":"71","onlinetime":"2018/04/0810:17:46$2018/05/0400:00:00"},{"id":"72","onlinetime":"2018/04/1900:00:00$2018/05/0223:59:59"},{"id":"73","onlinetime":"2018/05/0400:00:00$2018/05/1623:59:59"},{"id":"74","onlinetime":"2018/05/0200:00:00$2018/05/1623:59:59"},{"id":"c_ph_tujia_h","onlinetime":"2018/01/2418:00:00$2018/12/3123:59:59"},{"id":"c_ph_lipinplus_l","onlinetime":"2017/04/2110:38:46$2017/04/2800:00:00"}]如行李的价值每公斤低于100元时,按实际价值赔偿。

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  13随身携带物品每位旅客免费随身携带物品的重量以5公斤为限。

  天天好彩[{"id":"1","onlinetime":"2016/07/0100:00:00$2016/08/0100:00:00"},{"id":"3","onlinetime":"2016/04/1200:00:00$2016/07/0100:00:00"},{"id":"4","onlinetime":"2016/04/1200:00:00$2016/07/0100:00:00"},{"id":"5","onlinetime":"2016/06/0100:00:00$2016/06/2600:00:00"},{"id":"6","onlinetime":"2016/04/1200:00:00$2016/07/0100:00:00"},{"id":"7","onlinetime":"2016/06/2600:00:00$2016/07/1800:00:00"},{"id":"8","onlinetime":"2016/07/1800:00:00$2016/08/0900:00:00"},{"id":"9","onlinetime":"2016/06/1700:00:00$2016/08/3100:00:00"},{"id":"12","onlinetime":"2016/07/0600:00:00$2016/08/0600:00:00"},{"id":"13","onlinetime":"2016/08/0900:00:00$2016/08/3023:59:59"},{"id":"14","onlinetime":"2016/07/2717:30:14$2016/08/2723:59:59"},{"id":"16","onlinetime":"2016/08/3100:00:00$2016/09/3023:59:59"},{"id":"17","onlinetime":"2016/09/1500:00:00$2016/09/3023:59:59"},{"id":"18","onlinetime":"2016/09/0500:00:00$2016/09/1623:59:59"},{"id":"19","onlinetime":"2016/09/1900:00:00$2016/09/2323:59:59"},{"id":"20","onlinetime":"2016/10/0100:00:00$2016/10/3023:59:59"},{"id":"21","onlinetime":"2017/06/2300:00:00$2099/12/3123:59:59"},{"id":"22","onlinetime":"2016/09/2600:00:00$2016/10/2623:59:59"},{"id":"23","onlinetime":"2016/10/1800:00:00$2016/10/3023:59:59"},{"id":"24","onlinetime":"2016/11/0100:00:00$2016/12/0123:59:59"},{"id":"25","onlinetime":"2016/11/0100:00:00$2016/12/0123:59:59"},{"id":"26","onlinetime":"2016/11/0100:00:00$2016/11/1123:59:59"},{"id":"27","onlinetime":"2016/10/1800:00:00$2016/10/3023:59:59"},{"id":"28","onlinetime":"2016/12/1300:00:00$2017/02/2023:59:59"},{"id":"29","onlinetime":"2016/12/2817:28:32$2017/01/2823:59:59"},{"id":"30","onlinetime":"2016/12/0100:00:00$2016/12/1223:59:59"},{"id":"31","onlinetime":"2016/12/0200:00:00$2016/12/1223:59:59"},{"id":"32","onlinetime":"2016/12/1317:33:15$2017/01/1323:59:59"},{"id":"33","onlinetime":"2016/12/2211:19:01$2017/12/2211:19:03"},{"id":"34","onlinetime":"2016/12/2211:19:01$2017/12/2211:19:03"},{"id":"35","onlinetime":"2017/02/1614:19:45$2017/03/1523:59:59"},{"id":"36","onlinetime":"2017/03/1700:00:00$2017/03/3123:59:59"},{"id":"37","onlinetime":"2017/03/1700:00:00$2017/03/3123:59:59"},{"id":"38","onlinetime":"2017/03/0100:00:00$2017/04/0123:59:59"},{"id":"39","onlinetime":"2017/03/0100:00:00$2017/04/0122:59:59"},{"id":"40","onlinetime":"2017/04/0100:00:00$2017/04/2123:59:59"},{"id":"41","onlinetime":"2017/04/1200:00:00$2017/05/1223:59:59"},{"id":"42","onlinetime":"2017/04/2200:00:00$2017/05/1523:59:59"},{"id":"43","onlinetime":"2017/04/2200:00:00$2017/05/1523:59:59"},{"id":"44","onlinetime":"2017/05/2200:00:00$2017/06/2223:59:59"},{"id":"45","onlinetime":"2017/05/2200:00:00$2017/05/2923:59:59"},{"id":"46","onlinetime":"2017/06/0100:00:00$2017/07/0123:59:59"},{"id":"47","onlinetime":"2017/07/2000:00:00$2017/08/1923:59:59"},{"id":"48","onlinetime":"2017/09/0115:00:00$2017/09/3015:00:00"},{"id":"49","onlinetime":"2017/10/0100:00:00$2017/10/1923:59:59"},{"id":"50","onlinetime":"2017/10/0100:00:00$2017/10/1923:59:59"},{"id":"51","onlinetime":"2017/08/1800:00:00$2017/08/3123:59:59"},{"id":"52","onlinetime":"2017/08/1800:00:00$2017/09/1823:59:59"},{"id":"53","onlinetime":"2017/08/1800:00:00$2017/09/1723:59:59"},{"id":"54","onlinetime":"2017/09/0100:00:00$2017/09/2923:59:59"},{"id":"55","onlinetime":"2017/11/1200:00:00$2017/12/1223:59:59"},{"id":"56","onlinetime":"2017/10/2000:00:00$2017/11/1123:59:59"},{"id":"57","onlinetime":"2017/11/0200:00:00$2017/11/1200:00:00"},{"id":"58","onlinetime":"2018/03/1600:00:00$2018/04/0823:59:59"},{"id":"59","onlinetime":"2018/03/1600:00:00$2018/04/0823:59:59"},{"id":"60","onlinetime":"2017/11/2700:00:00$2017/12/2723:59:59"},{"id":"61","onlinetime":"2017/11/2700:00:00$2017/12/2723:59:59"},{"id":"62","onlinetime":"2018/01/0415:00:00$2018/01/1723:59:59"},{"id":"63","onlinetime":"2018/01/1800:00:00$2018/02/1823:59:59"},{"id":"64","onlinetime":"2017/12/2116:01:03$2018/01/2123:59:59"},{"id":"65","onlinetime":"2018/01/1815:31:34$2018/02/1823:59:59"},{"id":"66","onlinetime":"2018/03/0500:00:00$2018/03/1500:00:00"},{"id":"67","onlinetime":"2018/03/1600:00:00$2018/04/0800:00:00"},{"id":"68","onlinetime":"2018/03/0900:00:00$2018/04/0923:59:59"},{"id":"69","onlinetime":"2018/04/0900:00:00$2018/05/0823:59:59"},{"id":"70","onlinetime":"2018/04/0810:16:57$2018/05/0400:00:00"},{"id":"71","onlinetime":"2018/04/0810:17:46$2018/05/0400:00:00"},{"id":"72","onlinetime":"2018/04/1900:00:00$2018/05/0223:59:59"},{"id":"73","onlinetime":"2018/05/0400:00:00$2018/05/1623:59:59"},{"id":"74","onlinetime":"2018/05/0200:00:00$2018/05/1623:59:59"},{"id":"c_ph_tujia_h","onlinetime":"2018/01/2418:00:00$2018/12/3123:59:59"},{"id":"c_ph_lipinplus_l","onlinetime":"2017/04/2110:38:46$2017/04/2800:00:00"}]

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30南岸区南坪东路邮政所13640560130南岸区南坪东路二巷2号附8号8:30-17:30南岸区珊瑚邮政所13640561028南岸区南坪珊瑚路8号附29号8:30-17:30南岸区万寿路邮政所13640560413南岸区南坪万寿路54号8:30-17:30南岸区文峰邮政所61217494南山街道文峰正街84号1层门面10号8:30-17:30

  246天天好彩免费资料大全 二四六天天好彩资料 二四六天天好彩资料

   - 丹东全图牛彩网心水资料 - jlcc1069.com

 
责编:

智库中国 > 

- 丹东全图牛彩网心水资料 - jlcc1069.com

来源:中国社会科学网 | 作者:王佃利 | 时间:2018-06-22 | 责编:

二四六天天好彩资料 旅客在购票时须提供将在机场办理乘机手续时使用的有效旅行证件。

       四十年的改革开放,见证且推动着城市化的快速推进与城市的崛起。21世纪初“城市群”概念在我国的兴起,不仅表明改革开放初期是否发展特大城市的历史争论被“城市—区域”的视角所取代,同时也隐含着城市建设者与研究者对于城市的美好期盼:建立空间更广泛、功能更完善、人民更满意的城市发展格局。近年来,我国城市发展政策相继出台,不断革新着城市群的建设思路与发展格局。研究城市就应该把它放在区域中去看,城市群治理应克服单一城市的自利性行为倾向,协作解决区域发展中的共同挑战。

  走进政策话语的“城市群”

  早期中国城市群治理的政策实践,源于“区域—城市”二分视角的探索。改革开放前二十年,我国以小城镇推进城市化的进程。21世纪初,这一建设思路逐渐转变为承认和强化“区域”对国家和城市发展的重要性认知,并尝试以行政力量引导市场经济体制下的城市及城市群发展。

  在“区域”的层面上,改革开放不仅充实了我国城市化的物质基础,也使市场资本打破了中华人民共和国成立初期的均等化城市格局,成为影响城市发展的主导性因素。为扭转资本所引发的中西部地区与东部地区不断拉大的城市化差距,我国政府先后实施了西部大开发(2000)、东北振兴(2003)、中部崛起(2009)等一系列促进区域协调发展重大战略。

  而在“城市”的层面,包括高新区、经济技术开发区、保税区等在内的各类政策特区在城市内部及郊区不断涌现,成为推动城市空间扩展、强化区域产业协调的重要依托。以高新区为例,自2000年起国家层面先后出台了《科技部、国家环保总局关于在高新技术产业开发区开展创建ISO14000国家示范区活动的通知》(2000)、《科学技术部关于进一步支持国家高新技术产业开发区发展的决定》(2002)、《国家高新技术产业开发区技术创新纲要》(2005)、《关于促进国家高新技术产业开发区进一步发展增强自主创新能力的若干意见》(2007)等一系列重要的指导性文件,地方城市政府也相继出台了各类优惠政策。这些政策不仅推动了所在城市的发展,更为后期强化城市群的互动协调提供了基本的产业基础。在一定程度上,当前我国城市群较为成熟的地域,大多是早期产业政策汇聚地。

  尽管“城市群”的概念在早期城市政策中较少出现,但通过“区域—城市”两个层面所开展的政策布局,实际上是逐渐承认并将城市群视为均衡区域发展、引导城市资本力量的重要抓手。经过十余年的政策探索,我国逐渐明确了以行政力量引导地区均衡发展、推动城市空间有序扩展的基本建设思路,“城市群”逐渐活跃于各级政府的政策实践之中。

  2014年公布的《国家新型城镇化发展规划(2014—2020年)》,强调“要以城市群作为优化城镇化布局和形态的主体形态”,正式明确和承认了“城市群”的重要空间作用和社会价值,即改变传统的“东中西部”条状区域发展思路,将以城市群为单位的“块状”区域规划上升为国家战略。2016年出台的《国民经济和社会发展第十三个五年规划纲要》,更是具体指明了我国城市群发展的基本构想,“优化提升东部地区城市群,建设京津冀、长三角、珠三角世界级城市群,提升山东半岛、海峡西岸城市群开放竞争水平,培育中西部地区城市群”。可见,城市群不再仅仅是“区域—城市”视野中的模糊角色,已成为推动新型城镇化、支撑区域发展的重要增长极。

  在“城市群”正式上升为“政策话语”的同时,我国在城市治理创新方面的探索也不断前行,为中观视角的“城市群治理”积累了较为丰富的实践经验。首先是表现为国家级新区的全面布局。新区力图取代和整合以往功能单一的经济政策特区,通过地域空间、使命功能、行政关系、行政手段等维度的重构实现了由经济驱动向区域发展战略载体的功能嬗变,并于2014年进入经验推广阶段。其次是迭次出台的诸多国家级城市群规划。这些规划不仅明确了区域发展的中心城市,更以顶层政策设计的方式指明了区域发展中跨越城市行政区划藩篱的路径。事实上,国家级新区多为跨区划边界类型的新区,甚至城市群都是跨越多个省份的行政区划,这都印证了我国城市建设者和研究者对于城市群治理的前瞻性探索与思考。 
       以跨越治理为理念走向

  近二十年来的城市群治理政策,并没有停留在发展远景的宏大描述上。在此过程中,“城市群”在政策话语体系中经历了由模糊到明确的演变历程,它的发展带有鲜明的政策引导倾向。

  行政驱动是中国城市群治理的显著动因。改革开放带来城市样态的巨大变革,市场经济条件下各类社会资源向城市的集聚是中国城市化快速推进的根本原因。但中国城市群的产生发展并非仅仅受到资本力量逐利性的引导,行政力量进行能动地前置性规划在更大程度上推动着我国城市群的发展及其治理实践。因此,城市群的形成在中国最明显的特点就是行政驱动,其发展和合作最主要的实现措施是城市政府间的合作。作为首部跨省市的区域“十三五”规划,《“十三五”时期京津冀国民经济和社会发展规划》于2016年2月正式印发实施。这一政策打破了行政边界这一硬性标准,以城市政府的跨域合作来进一步释放 “京津冀”城市群建设的巨大潜能。未来,强化城市政府间合作的常态化与制度化建设将是推动中国城市群治理的基本趋势。

  区域公共物品有效供给是中国城市群治理的本质要求。城市群的区域公共物品可被划分为基础设施类和制度类,前者是指服务于城市群建设与区域经济发展的大型基础设施,后者则涵盖各项地方性法规、政策以及其保障措施等,两者供给效能将极大地影响城市群及区域竞争力。城市群发展的动力之一就在于破解单个城市无法解决的区域挑战,以集体行动应对跨越行政区划分割所带来的现实问题。城市间的密切联系给城市的发展带来了机遇和挑战,但城市间的过度竞争常常损害区域的整体利益。因此,城市群治理的本质在于提供满足不同区域、主体与部门差异化需求的区域公共物品,以基础设施和政策制度的完善推动城市群治理水平的提高。在某种意义上,“区域公共产品的供给状况及其发展反映着对区域公共问题的治理程度及其管理水平”,中国城市群治理效能的提升有赖于区域公共物品有效供给的实现。

  跨域治理是中国城市群治理的理念走向。在实践中,城市群已经成为我国的主体空间形态,城市与城市之间的关系也变得更加多元,城市的抱团趋势和城市政府之间的博弈同时存在。跨越边界、实现共赢需要可行的策略,也需要引领的智慧。跨域治理的理念能够有效回应政策议题的跨区域特质,实现公共物品的有效供给,增进中国城市群治理的整体性效益。中国城市群以跨域治理为理念走向,具体体现在“决策—组织—操作—结果”四个层面的优化与完善:在决策层面,应以合作规则和行动程序的建立促进协作行为合法化;在组织层面,统筹兼顾的组织协调机制是城市合作治理的基本保障;在操作层面,需强化跨域治理理论在具体政策工具选择和政策实施中的运用;而在结果层面,应借助有力的绩效评价和激励约束强化合作机制的约束力。

  完善推进城市群的具体措施

  自城市研究伊始,围绕城市评价的争论从未终止:城市到底是经济社会发展的高级形态还是一种过度拥挤即将衰败的城市区域?这些争论关心的实质其实是城市治理的现实效能。

  我国城市化的快速推进深刻变革着我国既有的城市空间格局,城市群发展已成为国家与区域、国家与社会的共同关注点。按照新国家空间理论的观点,一个国家主要的“城市—区域”在世界城市体系中的地位和全球生产网络中的控制力将直接影响该国家的经济发展。中国城市群发展问题,不再仅仅是城市政府的合作问题,更是一个关乎国民经济发展的战略命题。对于中国城市群的战略地位问题,当前我国既有的政策实践已有所回应并不断优化,但在具体落实措施方面仍有进一步完善的空间。

  伴随着城市化进程的加快,我国城市群的治理主体愈加多元、治理内容愈加丰富、治理手段愈发多样,城市群以开放姿态迎接着潜在的机遇与挑战。但是,由于城市行政层级、城市规模控制和户籍制度等政府干预因素,我国城市体系路径选择有别于其他国家。以往的政策实践表明,我国的城市群治理依旧是由行政力量主导的,多元主体的有效参与并未直接出现于现有话语体系中。这既是中国城市群治理的显著特征,亦可能是未来城市群发展的潜在障碍。如何实现由特色到优势的转化,避免“城市群战略地位被过分扩大,城市群空间范围一扩再扩”等行政干预的现实问题,值得城市建设者与研究者的进一步探讨和共同努力。

 

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